Estemmenosuchus mirabilis was a 4-5m long Permian therapsid. It possessed large horns, and a fierce but mixed dentition, indicating that it was probably omnivorous. Fossilised skin impressions hav been discovered, and they show that this animal had smooth skin with no hair or scales. Because of its size it had a small surface to volume ratio, meaning that its body temperature remained relatively stable. This is mostly true for all other large Permian therapsids, and is key to their success.

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